Monday, December 10, 2007

Quezon City

Quezon City P (Filipino: Lungsod Quezon), is the former capital (1948-1976) and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City (popularly known to Filipinos as simply QC) is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L. Quezon, the former president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines who founded the city and developed it to replace Manila as the country's capital. Quezon City is not located in and should not be confused with Quezon province, which was also named after the president.

Quezon City was the previous capital city of the Philippines. There are residential areas ranging from the upper-middle class, right through to the upper-upper class.

Having been the former capital, many government offices are located in the city, including the Batasang Pambansa, the seat of the House of Representatives, which is the lower chamber in the Philippine Congress. The main campuses of two noteworthy universities, the Ateneo de Manila University and the University of the Philippines, Diliman are located in the city.



[edit] Geography

Quezon City is the largest city in Metro Manila and Luzon. At approximately 160 square kilometers, it comprises almost one-fourth of Metro Manila. The city lies on a relatively high plateau on the northeast corner of the metropolis between the lowlands of Manila to the southwest and the Marikina River valley to the east. The southern portion is drained by the very narrow San Juan River and its tributaries to Pasig River, while running in the northern portions of the city is the equally narrow Tullahan River.

Quezon City is bordered by Manila to the southwest, by Caloocan City and Valenzuela City to the west and northwest. To the south lies San Juan and Mandaluyong City while Marikina City and Pasig City borders Quezon City to the southeast. To the north across Marilao River lies San Jose del Monte City in the province of Bulacan and to the east lies Rodriguez and San Mateo, both in the province of Rizal.

The city can be divided into a number of areas. The southern portion of the city is divided into a number of places including Diliman, Commonwealth, the Project areas, Cubao, Kamias-Kamuning, New Manila, San Francisco del Monte and Sta. Mesa Heights. The northern half of the city is often called Novaliches and contains the areas of Fairview and Lagro. Most of these areas have no defined boundaries and are primarily residential in nature.

[edit] Sub-divisions

[edit] Diliman

The Quezon Memorial at Quezon City.
The Quezon Memorial at Quezon City.

Diliman, located at the center of southern Quezon City, is where many government offices are located, including the City Hall. Diliman is also home to the main campus of the University of the Philippines. Far Eastern University's Institute of Technology (now FEU-FERN College) 15-hectare campus is located at the central portion of Diliman.

At Diliman's center lies the Quezon Memorial where the late President Manuel L. Quezon is interred. The monument, encased in marble, is the highest structure in that part of the city. Running around the monument is the two-kilometer Quezon Memorial Circle, also known as the Elliptical Road (R-7/C-5). The circle links Commonwealth (R-7/C-5), Visayas, Kalayaan, East, North(C-5), and Quezon Avenues (R-7). The last three avenues provide access to Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) (C-4), the main highway in Metro Manila.

The Quezon City Hall, one of the highest city halls in the country is located along the Circle. Surrounding the city hall are spacious parks and open areas. Some of the national government agencies whose head offices are located in Diliman are the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR), Social Security Systems (SSS), the National Power Corporation, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philvolcs), the National Computer Center (NCC), the Office of the Ombudsman, the Departments of Agriculture (DA), Agrarian Reform (DAR), and the Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

Surrounding the Circle are many important health centers and institutions. Along East Avenue stands the Philippine Heart Center, the East Avenue Medical Center (EAMC), the National Kidney and Transplant Institute, and the Philippine Mental Health Association. Along North Avenue is the Veteran's Memorial Medical Center (VMMC) and the Philippine Health Association. The Philippine Children's Medical Center and Lung Center of the Philippines is located along Quezon Avenue (R-7).

The University of the Philippines, Diliman (UPD) lies at the northwestern portion of Diliman occupying 4.92 km² of rolling land. (See the University of the Philippines, Diliman (Campus section)). Other schools are also located in the Diliman area, such as the main campus of the Philippine Science High School system.

Most of the rest of the area is residential. Some villages in this portion of Diliman are Teachers Village, U.P. Village, and Sikatuna Village. Those closer to the University of the Philippines campus such as Teachers Village and U.P. Village remain mostly residential although many have converted spare rooms to boarding facilities for out-of-town students attending schools in the area: U.P., Ateneo, and Miriam College. The eastern edge of the Diliman area is roughly bounded by Katipunan Road which passes in front of Ateneo and Miriam and runs behind the U.P Diliman campus.

[edit] Commonwealth and Balara

North of Diliman lies the Commonwealth area, so-named because of Commonwealth Avenue (R-7) (formerly called Don Mariano Marcos Avenue) which runs through its center. This is primarily a middle-class residential area home to many subdivisions (residential associations) such as Don Jose Heights, Ideal Subdivision, Jordan Park Homes and Doña Carmen Subdivision. Commonwealth also plays host to one of the largest squatters' communities in the country, specifically in the areas of Batasan Hills (formerly called Constitution Hills), and within the proposed National Government Center. Commonwealth Avenue is the widest road in the Philippines, where in some parts can stretch to as much as 16 lanes across.

At the heart of Commonwealth is the Batasang Pambansa (literally, National Lawmaking Center), which is where the country's House of Representatives holds its sessions. Many congressmen stay in houses in the surrounding subdivisions.

South of Commonwealth and east of Diliman is Balara. The area of Balara along Tandang Sora Avenue is relatively poor, while the outlying areas contain some of the richest subdivisions in the city. Capitol Hills Subdivision, Ayala Heights, and Ayala Hillside Estates are affluent communities. Adjacent to Ayala Heights and Ayala Hillside Estates is the Capitol Hills Golf and Country Club, a popular golf course.

Moreover, the well-known Polytechnic University of the Philippines has an extension campus in Commonwealth area, serving the parts of northern Metropolitan Manila.

[edit] Tandang Sora

This is located between Commonwealth to the east, North Ave to the south, Frisco to the west and Fairview-Sauyo to the north. It got its name from the Grand Old Lady of the Revolution, Melchora Aquino or Tandang Sora, whose remains lie on her own backyard now known as Himlayang Pilipino. The area is primarily residential with Projects 6 and 8 located here, as are other subdivisions, like Town & Country Gardenville, San Pedro 3 and more. A large portion of Tandang Sora district is Barangay Bahay Toro, where a historic site of the Philippine Revolution known as Pugad Lawin is located. There are some industrial facilities especially near the Mindanao Avenue area. Culiat, a known Muslim compound is also to be found here. Also the prestige Subdivisions and Village like Tierra Pura Village and Gloria III Subdivision.

AMA Computer University's central campus lies in the western portion of Project 8. Most of its students are studying information technology-related degrees.

[edit] Loyola Heights

Loyola Heights, to the southeast of Diliman is Marikina City's gateway to Quezon City. The Aurora Boulevard (R-6) and Katipunan Avenue (C-5) provide easy access, but often experience traffic jams during rush hours. Also located in Loyola Heights is the Katipunan Station of the Manila LRT Purple Line (LRT-2), which runs in an east-west direction, providing rapid access to the cities of Manila, Quezon City, Marikina and Pasig, and San Juan. Passengers can transfer to the Manila LRT Yellow Line at Recto station in Manila, or to the Manila Metro Rail Transit System (Blue Line) at Araneta Center-Cubao station.

The main campus of the Ateneo de Manila University is located in Loyola Heights. Beside the Ateneo is Miriam College.

Loyola Heights also has numerous study centers such as: Kumon, Newton Study Center, MSA, and others.

Loyola Heights is an upper middle-class and rich residential area that caters to students of the Ateneo de Manila, University of the Philippines, and Miriam College, members of the schools' faculty and staff, and their families. La Vista Subdivision, north of the Ateneo, is an upscale gated community where some of the country's top politicians own residences, including Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, as well as many of the country's moneyed elite. Accessed through La Vista is Loyola Grand Villas, another upscale gated community. Across Katipunan, the main thoroughfare of the area, are Varsity Hills and Xavierville, both upper middle-class subdivisions. Near these areas, and right beside La Vista, are some squatters' settlements, making the Loyola Heights area a place of mixed socio-economic classes.

[edit] Cubao

Cubao, south of Diliman is an important commercial area. At its heart is the Araneta Center, along EDSA (C-4) and Aurora Boulevard (R-6). It houses a number of shopping malls often compared to Madison Square in New York. One such mall is the Ali Mall (named after the boxing legend Muhammad Ali), then also The Farmers Plaza, and the modern Gateway Mall. Department stores and retail centers can also be found here, such as Plaza Fair, Rustan's, Shopwise Supercenter, and Makro. At the center is Araneta Coliseum, often called the Big Dome. Many musical concerts, religious crusades, wrestling, cock-fighting and basketball games are held in this 50,000-capacity coliseum.

There are residential areas ranging from the upper-middle class, right through to the upper-upper class, in Cubao Quezon City.

North from Araneta Center along EDSA (C-4) are numerous bus terminals, a place where one can take a bus ride to almost any point in Luzon as well as in the Visayas especially in Samar, Leyte, and Iloilo. It is also an intersection point for two of city's commuter trains (The EDSA MRT which travels from North to South, and the LRT-2 which runs from East to West).

[edit] Libis

Libis by night
Libis by night

Located at the southeastern corner of Quezon City, Libis is one of the newly developed commercial areas in Quezon City. The Eastwood City Business Center is situated here. It consists of several office and residential skyscrapers, including many local IT and consumer electronic firms. Numerous bars and restaurants have been put up since 2000 along E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue (C-5). Many of which are open-air restaurants and coffee shops reminiscent of Paris boulevards, but with a modern architecture. With this, Libis is fast becoming one of the hippest areas for night entertainment, similar to the Malate and Ermita districts of Manila.

West of Libis are many high-end gated communities like the Acropolis, Blue Ridge, Greenmeadows, White Plains, Corinthian Hills, and Corinthian Gardens. Further west are Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. Camp Aguinaldo is the headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines while Camp Crame is the headquarters of the Philippine National Police.

Located in Greenmeadows is the Manila Philippines Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormons or LDS). The Manila Philippines Temple was dedicated on September 25, 1984 as the 29th operating temple, to serve the half-million plus Filipino Mormons.

[edit] Timog area

Surrounding Timog Avenue (South Avenue) and Tomas Morato Avenue is a popular entertainment area. Located along these two avenues are many fine-dining restaurants and bars. Discotheques, Karaoke joints and comedy bars provide patrons with all-night long recreation. It is home to many gay bars such as Chicos, Adonis and Gigolo, which are popular for their lively night time entertainment.

In the South Triangle (the area bounded by Quezon Avenue (R-7), Timog Avenue (South Avenue) and EDSA) are located the head offices of ABS-CBN and GMA Network, the top TV media companies in the country. Most Filipino entertainment shows are produced here, and it is also home to many Filipino celebrities.

See also: Scouting_memorials#Asia

Several of the streets in the surrounding area were named in honor of the 20 Boy Scouts who died in a plane crash en route to joining the 11th World Scout Jamboree. A memorial stands in the center of a rotunda at the intersection of Timog and Tomas Morato avenues. Because of this, Timog area is also often called Scout Area. In fact, one of the barangays (small local government unit) in the area is called Laging Handa (always ready), the motto of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines.

[edit] Novaliches

The northern district is called Novaliches and is primarily residential. The La Mesa Dam Watershed occupies the eastern portion. The Dam supplies much of northern Metro Manila's water supply. Adjacent to the watershed is the La Mesa Eco-Park, where you can stroll and unwind at Metro Manila's only forest space. Also located in the park are convention centers, picnic areas, swimming pools, an orchidarium, and a large lagoon for boating activities. It was also the site of the rowing and dragon boat events for the 2005 SEA (South East Asian) Games. Rowing is regularly done here.

Premier malls have been built recently in this area such as SM City Fairview, Robinsons Place Novaliches, Fairview Center Mall, colleges like FEU (Far Eastern University) -NRMF, Our Lady of Fatima University (OLFU), AMA Computer College Fairview Campus, Metro Manila College (MMC), National College of Business and Arts (NCBA), La Consolacion College-Deparo(LCCD), Montessori College: high schools like Lagro High School, School of St. Anthony, Faith Christian Academy of Novaliches, Sto. Niño De Novaliches School, St. Theresa's School of Novaliches, San Bartolome High School, Sacred Heart Academy of Novaliches, Our Lady of Lourdes School of Novaliches, Little Merry Hearts Montessori Center, Holy Child Academy, Divine Grace School and many others.

Various SMEs (small to medium enterprises) are also booming in Novaliches, with offices and services offering health care, money transfer, software development, online trading, and many others.

The name Novaliches probably came from the surname of a Spanish governor general, Marquis de Novaliches. The town was once part of Rizal province before being ceded to Quezon City in the 1940s. This district is among the largest in the city, having shared boundaries with the two sections of Caloocan City, Valenzuela City, San Jose del Monte City in Bulacan and Montalban, Rizal. The oldest part of the city is in the town center, aptly named Novaliches Bayan. But because of population growth the density of people gradually widened reaching up the edge of the La Mesa Reservoir (Lagro and Fairview).

In 1999, a plebiscite was held among the voters of Quezon City to determine the cityhood of Novaliches. The proposed creation of "Novaliches City" would have resulted in the secession of 15 barangays from Quezon City. At the plebiscite's end, votes that were against the separation heavily outnumbered those that were in favor.

[edit] Sta. Mesa Heights

Sta. Mesa Heights is said to be where many middle class and upper middle class families reside. Most of the areas in Sta. Mesa Heights are residential. It is home to two prestigious institutions of learning, St. Theresa's College (STC,QC) and the Lourdes School of Quezon City. It is also home to the national shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes.

[edit] San Francisco Del Monte

It was founded on February 17, 1590. It was meant to be a place for retreat for residents in Intramuros in Manila. The street's old name Retiro,(now called N.S. Amoranto Sr. Avenue) came from the word retiro, meaning retreat, because it offers a place of solitude nestled atop a hill to many retreatants. The church located in San Francisco del Monte was the first building in the area. It is named after its benevolent Spanish friar and founder, St. Pedro Bautista (of Avila, Spain).

It was an independent town during the Spanish era that had an area of 250 acres of land filled with wildlife and trees. It was later absorbed by Quezon City when it was created. Today, it is a heavily populated district. Although it contains many residential areas such as Barangay San Antonio, there are many industrial facilities here, mostly found along Judge Juan Luna street. The two main intersections of this area are Roosevelt Ave. and Del Monte Ave.

When it was first founded, it was around 2.5 km² in area. It reached out to what is currently Project 7 and 8 and all the way out to Timog Ave area. Currently, it is composed of Brgy. Paraiso, Paltok, Mariblu, Damayan and Del Monte.

One of the famous people that lived in this town is the famed Filipino actor Fernando Poe, Jr. whose ancestral home still exists.

[edit] Galas-Santol

The Galas-Santol District of Quezon City is located in its southwest border with the City of Manila. Araneta Avenue (C-3) is the primary dividing line between the rich and the poor. West of the avenue lies the residential corner of many of the poorest in the city. Shanties predominate the area, stretching from Araneta Avenue to Galas, while east of the avenue features the palatial mansions of some of the richest. SM City Sta. Mesa lies at the end of the avenue.

[edit] The Project areas

The Project areas include Project 1 (presently Roxas), Project 2 (Quirino-A), Project 3 (Quirino-B), Project 4, Project 5 (presently Kamias), Project 6, Project 7, and Project 8. These areas are among the first residential subdivisions in the city developed by former Philippine Presidents Quezon, Quirino and Marcos.

[edit] Economy

Katipunan Avenue, a major road in Quezon City. The trees on the right side of the image are part of the Ateneo de Manila University campus.
Katipunan Avenue, a major road in Quezon City. The trees on the right side of the image are part of the Ateneo de Manila University campus.

The commercial center of the city is in Cubao where many shopping malls and the Aurora Tower can be found. There is a farmers plaza and farmers market. Fiesta Carnival is an enclosed amusement park cum carnival which is located in the heart of the Cubao Commercial Center. You will also find the Araneta Coliseum, a venue for concerts as well as sports events.

Quezon City is also home to major television broadcasting networks. Major television companies (ABC, ABS-CBN, GMA Network, NBN, RPN, and IBC) are all based in Quezon City.

Quezon City also has a vibrant nightlife. Tomas Morato Avenue is known as restaurant row where restaurants range from fine dining to fast food. Bars and cafes also line up Tomas Morato. West Avenue also has its own version of restaurant row, but the difference is that West Avenue restaurants come in clusters, while Tomas Morato has restaurants in nearly the entire stretch.

For the more adventurous, Quezon Avenue, Timog (South) Avenue and West Avenue with nightclubs and other drinking joints, have a lot to offer. Some are seedy while others are wholesome.

[edit] Communications

Quezon City's communication system is powered by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, Globe telecoms, Bayan Telecommunications Corporation and others. Cellular networking in the Philippines, particularly the Metropolitan areas, is increasing rapidly together with the low cost of calls and text messaging. Such big companies that control the cellular networks in the Philippines and Quezon City itself are Globe Telecoms, Smart Communications (PLDT) and Sun Cellular from Digitel.

Science Education Complex courtyard, Ateneo de Manila University. Notice the Cat in the bottom right.
Science Education Complex courtyard, Ateneo de Manila University. Notice the Cat in the bottom right.

[edit] Education

The city has several major educational institutions. Two of the most well-known are the Ateneo de Manila University and the University of the Philippines, Diliman. Also in Quezon City are medical schools such as the Far Eastern University - Dr. Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation University of the East - Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center and the Our Lady of Fatima University . The Polytechnic University of the Philippines also has an extension campus in Commonwealth area. Business and management schools include Entrepreneurs School Of Asia located in Libis, National College for Business and Arts (NCBA), and Philippine School of Business Administration (PSBA). Popular women's colleges such as Miriam College are also found in the city. Other academic institutions include:

UP Diliman - Oblation
UP Diliman - Oblation

Notable secondary public schools include Philippine Science High School, Quezon City Science High School, Quezon City High School and the University of the Philippines Integrated School (UPIS). Quezon City also holds the largest number of private elementary and secondary schools in Metro Manila. Distinguished private schools include:

[edit] Transportation

Currently, two elevated light rail systems run through Quezon City: MRT 2 - at Aurora Blvd (R-6) connecting Santolan (Pasig City) and Claro M. Recto Avenue (Manila), and MRT 3 - at EDSA (C-4) from Taft Avenue (R-2 in Pasay City) to North Avenue.

An elevated rail transit system (MRT-4) that was supposed to follow the general alignment of Quezon and Commonwealth Avenues (R-7) was shelved. In its place, a 22 kilometer rail system will be built. The MRT-7 project will commence at North Avenue, connecting the MRT-3 at its northern terminus. It will then go through Commonwealth Avenue, then through Regalado, Quirino Highway, ending in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan. The system has a proposed spur line to connect itself to MRT-2 in Katipunan, passing through the University of the Philippines Diliman and Katipunan Avenue.

Public transportation within the city, like in most of the urban areas in the Philippines, is facilitated mostly using inexpensive jeepneys and buses. Tricycles give access to more secluded areas, while taxi cabs are available to navigate any course.

[edit] Religion

The majority of the population is Roman Catholic, and in 2002, Quezon City was made a see for two new Catholic dioceses: Cubao and Novaliches, as the very populous Archdiocese of Manila was carved up and five new dioceses created. Various Protestant faiths have seen a significant increase in membership over recent decades and are well represented in Quezon City. While the Islamic faith is has its largest concentrations in the south of the Philippines, there is a significant population in Quezon City. The Salam compound in Barangay Culiat houses one of the area's landmark mosques. The Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry was based in Novaliches, Quezon City. The Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) Central Office is located in Quezon City. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints has its Philippines Manila Temple located near the Libis area of the city.

[edit] Government

Map showing the districts of Quezon City.
Map showing the districts of Quezon City.

Like other cities in the Philippines, Quezon City is governed by a mayor and vice mayor elected to three-year terms. The mayor is the executive head and leads the city's departments in executing the city ordinances and improving public services. The vice mayor heads a legislative council consisting of 10 members. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies.

Quezon City, being a part of the Metro Manila region, has its mayor in the Metro Manila Council headed by the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA). This council formulates development plans that seeks to solve the problems and improve the conditions in the metropolis.

Quezon City is divided into 142 barangays (the smallest local government units) which handle governance in a much smaller area. These barangays are grouped into four congressional districts where each district is represented by a congressman in the country's House of Representatives.

See also: Barangays of Quezon City.

[edit] History

Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon.
Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon.

Before Quezon City was created, it was composed of small towns. These were San Francisco del Monte, Novaliches, and Balintawak. In August 23, 1896, the Katipunan led by Andres Bonifacio declared a revolution against Spain in the house of Melchora Aquino in Pugad Lawin (now known as Bahay Toro, Project 8).

In the early 1900s, President Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would become the future capital of the country, replacing Manila. In 1938, President Quezon created People's Homesite Corporation and purchased 15.29 km² from the vast Diliman estate of the Tuason family. The National Assembly of the Philippine Commonwealth passed Commonwealth Act 502 known as the “Charter of Quezon City” originally proposed as Balintawak City, Assemblymen Narciso Ramos (father of President Fidel V. Ramos) and Ramon Mitra, Sr. (father of Speaker Ramon Mitra, Jr.) successfully lobbied the assembly to name the city after the incumbent president. President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into law without his signature on October 12, 1939, thus establishing Quezon City.

After the war, Republic Act No. 333 was signed by Elpidio Quirino on July 17, 1948 declaring Quezon City to be the republic's capital. On June 16, 1950, the City Charter was revised by Republic Act No. 537, extending the city's boundaries to its present area of 153.59 km². Baesa, Talipapa, San Bartolome, Pasong Tamo, Novaliches Poblacion, Banlat, Kabuyao, Pugad Lawin, Bagbag, Pasong Putik of the old Novaliches municipality ceded to Quezon City. The rest of the municipality was ceded to Caloocan thus becoming North Caloocan.

In October 1, 1975, Quezon City was the actual site of the "Thrilla in Manila" fight between Muhammad Ali & Joe Frazier.

On November 7, 1975 the promulgation of Presidential Decree No. 824 of President Ferdinand Marcos established Metro Manila. Quezon City became one of Metro Manila's 17 cities and municipalities. The next year, Presidential Decree No. 940 transferred the capital back to Manila on June 24, 1976.

On March 31, 1978, President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the transfer of the remains of President Manuel Quezon from the Manila North Cemetery to the erected Quezon Memorial Monument within the Quezon Elliptical Road.

Manuel L. Quezon Monument and the City Hall.
Manuel L. Quezon Monument and the City Hall.

On February 22, 1986, the Quezon City portion of the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue became the venue of the bloodless People Power Revolution.

On February 23, 1998, Republic Act. No. 8535 was signed by President Fidel Ramos. The Act provided for the creation of the City of Novaliches comprising the 15 northernmost barangays of Quezon City. However, in the succeeding plebiscite on October 23, 1999, an overwhelming majority of Quezon City residents rejected the secession of Novaliches.

Quezon City is the first local government in the Philippines with a computerized real estate assessment and payment system. The City government developed a database system that now contains around 400,000 property units with capability to record payments.

[edit] Mayors

Main article: List of mayors of Quezon City

President Manuel L. Quezon acted as mayor from October 12 to November 4, 1939, pending the resignation from another position of his intended appointee, Tomas B. Morato. Since a president can, under Philippine law, hold multiple portfolios inferior to the position of president, Quezon took the position of mayor in a concurrent capacity. However, it is erroneous to view him as the first mayor, as a president holding a concurrent, lower, position is not listed in the roster of incumbents for those offices.

Mayor Starting Date Ending Date Vice-Mayor
Tomas B. Morato Nov 5, 1939 Dec 1942 unknown
Ponciano A. Bernardo Jan 1, 1947 April 29, 1949
Nicanor A. Roxas May 4, 1949 Jan 6, 1950
Ignacio Santos Diaz Jan 6, 1950 Dec 30, 1953
Norberto S. Amoranto Jan 1, 1954 Mar 31, 1976
Adelina S. Rodriguez Apr 1, 1976 Apr 13, 1986 Ismael A. Mathay Jr.
Brigido R. Simon, Jr. Apr 20, 1986 June 30, 1992 Vicente Sotto III (1988-92)
Ismael A. Mathay, Jr. June 30, 1992 June 30, 2001 Charito Planas (1992-95)
Herbert Bautista (1995-98)
Connie Angeles (1998-2001)
Feliciano R. Belmonte, Jr. June 30, 2001 present Herbert Bautista (2001-present)

[edit] Sister cities

Makati City

The City of Makati, or simply Makati, is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the greater metropolitan area of the national capital of the Philippines. It is the major financial, commercial and economical hub in the Philippines, often referred to as the financial capital of the Philippines since many global companies have their offices and headquarters in the city. Makati is also home to the influential Makati Business Club and the Philippine Stock Exchange. Ayala Avenue, running through the heart of the Central Business District is often called the Wall Street of the Philippines.[citation needed]

Makati is noted for its highly cosmopolitan culture, also being a major cultural and entertainment hub in Metro Manila. Many expatriates live and work in the city. Makati is also home to many first-class shopping malls, which are located at Ayala Center and Rockwell Center. The city also has many of the country's five-star hotels like The Peninsula Manila, the Shangri-La Hotel Makati and the Intercontinental Hotel Manila. Independent business travelers also benefit from budget hotels like the Saint Illian's Inn, El Cielito Inn, The Copa Businessman's Hotel, and The City Garden Suites, while serviced apartments like The Salcedo Suites, Fraser Place Manila, The Sunette Tower, and The Oxford Suites are gaining in popularity among business-minded travelers as well.

Makati came from the Tagalog word kati, which means tide.[citation needed] This primarily refers to the rise and ebb of the tide of the Pasig River on the city's northern border. The city was also known as San Pedro Macati during the Spanish era.

Today the city is one of the most modern cities in the country and the Philippines' major global economic competitor in Southeast Asia.[citation needed] However, it faces challenges due to the disparate gap between the new city in the west, which contains the Central Business District, and the old city in the east, which is largely poor and where most of the city's slums are located.



[edit] Seal of Makati City

The official seal of Makati City depicts a silhouette of the territory of Makati. At the bottom is the Pasig River, located on the northern border of the city. The Guadalupe Church stands on the river and is the oldest church in Makati—a reference to Spanish influence. Behind the church rises the skyscrapers for which Makati City is well-known. Behind the skyscrapers are 33 rays representing the barangays of Makati.

[edit] History

Date Milestone
1670 Originally founded as a visita of Sta. Ana de Sapa under the jurisdiction of the Franciscans, Makati was first dismissed as "worthless" swamp land by the Spanish conquistador Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1571.
1671 to 1899 Yet over the centuries, this small community would leave large imprints in social, economic and cultural history. The friars established two of the earliest churches in the Philippines - the Nuestra Señora de Gracia in Guadalupe and the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul - in Makati, drawing pilgrims from all over the country.
1900 At the turn of the century, the Americans established Fort McKinley in Makati.
1901 San Pedro de Macati, with a population of 2,500, was incorporated into the province of Rizal.
February 28, 1914 The Philippine Legislature passed Act 2390, shortening the name San Pedro Macati to Makati in the 1930s, the first airport of Luzon, Nielson Field, opened in what is now the Ayala Triangle.
1950s to 1970s The first centrally planned community was established in the 1950s, and since the 1970s, Makati has been the undisputed financial and commercial capital, the once worthless swampland becoming prime real property.[citation needed]
1975 Makati was separated from Rizal province.
1980s Makati has also figured prominently in the political history of the Filipino. The community was one of the cradles of the revolt against Spanish colonial rule, and following the assassination of Ninoy Aquino in 1983, the epicenter of the protest movement against the dictatorial rule of President Ferdinand E. Marcos.
1986 Jejomar C. Binay was inaugurated as an acting mayor by Corazon C. Aquino after the People Power in EDSA and he was elected as the real mayor in 1987.
January 2, 1995 Makati became an independent city by virtue of Republic Act 7854.
June 30, 1998 The Lone District of Makati City were separated and divide them into 2 districts. Lone District Representative Joker Arroyo became the representative of the first district, while Senator Agapito Aquino was elected representative of second district.
June 30, 2001 Mayor Jejomar C. Binay came back to his position after his wife became a mayor.
2006 Mayor Jejomar Binay was suspended by the ombudsman like his friend, Pasay City Mayor Peewee Trinidad, but Binay remain suspended for only 3 days.

[edit] Geography and Landmarks

The Peninsula Manila has become a well-known landmark in Makati City.
The Peninsula Manila has become a well-known landmark in Makati City.

Makati is located within the quadrangle of 14′40″ °north and 121′3″ °E right at the center of Metro Manila. The city is bounded on the north by the Pasig River, facing Mandaluyong City, on the northeast by Pasig City, on the southeast by the municipality of Pateros and Taguig City, on the northwest by the City of Manila, and on the southwest by Pasay City. Makati has a total land area of 27.36 square kilometers; it constitutes 4.3 % of Metro Manila's total land area.

At the center of the city is the Central Business District (CBD) where many companies in the Philippines have their offices or headquarters. This is where many of the country's tallest skyscrapers are located. The Makati skyline is one of the most impressive sights in Metro Manila.

Two of Metro Manila's main arteries pass through Makati. The Epifanio De los Santos Avenue (EDSA) pass along the southeast part of Makati and connects the city with Mandaluyong City and Pasay City. The South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) runs through the western part of Makati and connects the city with Manila to the north and with southern Metro Manila. The Skyway, an elevated highway built on top of SLEX, provides residents coming from southern Metro Manila a fast way to reach Makati. SLEX and EDSA intersect at the Magallanes Interchange, which is the most complex system of elevated roadways in Metro Manila.

Other major roads in Makati include Buendia Avenue, also called Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, which connects EDSA and SLEX in the north; Ayala Avenue, an important street that runs through the Central Business District; and Makati Avenue, which connects Ayala Avenue with Buendia Avenue, also extending north to cross the Pasig River to Mandaluyong City. At the center of Makati is the Ayala Triangle, a park built on the former Nielsen Air Base.

Makati's sister city is Los Angeles, California. Makati is also twinned with Ramapo, New York.[citation needed]

[edit] Population

Makati City has a population of 444,867, according to the 2000 Census. This figure represents an increase of 39,824 or 8% over the 1995 Census figure. Among the cities and municipalities in Metro Manila, Makati ranks fifth in population, with a 5% share. In a span of 97 years, Makati's population grew 193 times. The 1903 Census placed the population at 2,700.

Although its population is slightly less than half a million, the daytime population of Makati City is estimated to be a million during a typical working weekday because of the large number of people who go to the city to work, shop, and do business, especially in the Central Business District.[citation needed]

[edit] The Central Business District

The Central Business District (CBD) is where most of Makati's financial resources are concentrated. This is an informal district bounded by Gil Puyat Avenue (formerly Buendia), Makati Avenue, Ayala Avenue, Arnaiz Road (formerly Pasay Road), and Chino Roces (formerly Pasong Tamo). It mainly encompasses Legaspi Village, Salcedo Village, and parts of Bel-Air. Much of the area is owned by Ayala Land, Inc and administered through Makati Development Corporation, its subsidiary.

Many skyscrapers rise in this area. PBCom Tower along Ayala Avenue is the country's tallest building and reaches up 265 meters.[citation needed] It is the headquarters of the Philippine Bank of Communications, or PBCom.

One of the trading floors of the Philippine Stock Exchange is housed in Ayala Tower One and at the old Makati Stock Exchange Building, both also along Ayala Avenue. The Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI), the country's oldest bank, has its headquarters at the corner of Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas.

Other companies that have their offices and country/regional headquarters within Makati City, most within the CBD, include IBM, Procter & Gamble, Citibank, Ayala Corporation, Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), Metrobank, Intel Philippines, Microsoft Philippines, Nestlé, Syngenta, Shell, Convergys Corporation, PeopleSupport, Pan Pacific Computer Center, Inc. (PPCC) and JG Summit, Accenture.

[edit] Shopping centers

Ayala Center, along EDSA and Ayala Avenue is the most known commercial center in the city. Developed by the Ayala Corporation, it contains two shopping malls, Glorietta and Greenbelt, five hotels, and an office building. The larger of the two shopping malls is Glorietta, which itself is a cluster of malls. Rising from Glorietta 4 is the Ascott Tower(formerly Oakwood Premier), a luxurious hotel-apartment residence at the heart of the center. Along the periphery of Glorietta are three department stores: SM Department Store Makati, Rustan's, and the Landmark. Across Makati Avenue from Glorietta is Greenbelt. This is one of the most sophisticated, modern, and expensive malls in the country. Greenbelt features dozens of coffee stores and restaurants, all overlooking a well-landscaped green park at the center where a domed Catholic chapel dominates the skyline. Other hotels in the vicinity of Ayala Center are the Makati Shangri-la Hotel, the Manila Peninsula, the Dusit Hotel Nikkō, Manila Garden, the Hotel Intercontinental Manila, and Renaissance Makati City Hotel.

Rockwell Center is the other first-class shopping center in Makati. Rockwell features the large Power Plant Mall popular with expatriates. At the periphery of the center are many high-class residential condominium towers, the Asian Eye Institute, and the Ateneo de Manila Professional Schools main campus, which houses the Ateneo Law School, the Ateneo Graduate School of Business, and the Ateneo School of Government.

Other shopping centers. The Cash and Carry Supermarket in the west along South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) features many products at low prices. Makati Cinema Square, along Pasong Tamo Road, used to be a popular shopping mall with the residents. Adjacent to the Makati Cinema Square is the big and modern Waltermart Mall. The Guadalupe Commercial Center, along EDSA and Pasig River is a middle-class shopping center frequented by residents from the poorer areas of Makati. PureGold is another independent Supermarket located at the end of J.P. Rizal Street, Barangay Singkamas. Shopwise, another popular Supermarket Chain in the Philippines, is situated at Pasong Tamo corner Vito Cruz.

[edit] Housing and residences

Many of the country's wealthiest families live in Forbes Park and Dasmariñas Village, on the other side of EDSA from the Central Business District. Other well-to-do people live in San Lorenzo Village, Urdaneta Village, Bel-Air Village, Magallanes Village, and San Miguel Village. Others live in condominiums and apartment units in the Central Business District of Salcedo Village, Legazpi Village and San Antonio Village. These "villages" are not rural settlements, but gated communities. The usage probably arose because most villages correspond to barangays. In these communities, homeowner associations may assess punitive fees and impose regulations through management companies such as Ayala Land.

Most of the average residents of the city live in the city's periphery, especially in the eastern portions of Rizal, East and West Rembo, Pembo, Comembo, South Cembo, and Pitogo.

Housing, especially for the poor residents of the city, remains an acute problem. Some in the outlying provinces migrate to Metro Manila looking for better living but end up squatting in many areas of the metropolis. In Makati, the squatter shanties lie mostly around Guadalupe on the bank of the Pasig River, except on the barangays in the privately-owned Central Business District.

[edit] Education, culture, and sports

Educational Institutions in Makati City

Makati City is home to the Asian Institute of Management (AIM). AIM, located along Paseo de Roxas across Greenbelt began as a collaborative project of the Ateneo de Manila University and De La Salle University-Manila. The Ateneo Professional Schools, a unit of the Ateneo de Manila University has facilities in Rockwell Center and Salcedo Village. The Rockwell campus houses the Ateneo Law School the Ateneo Graduate School of Business, and the Ateneo School of Government. The Salcedo campus houses the Ateneo Information Technology Institute. De La Salle University's Professional Schools also operates in RCBC Tower along Ayala Avenue. Mapua Institute of Technology alongside Buendia which is an extension of Mapua in Intramuros in Manila.

Other notable colleges and Universities in Makati are the Asian Seminary of Christian Ministries (ASCM) [1], Assumption College, Colegio San Agustin, Asia Pacific College, the University of Makati. Assumption College, in San Lorenzo Village, is an all-female college. The University of Makati (officially, Pamantasan ng Makati) is a university run by the city government. Also in the city are the Makati Science High School and Benigno Ninoy Aquino High School, both city-run high schools. Makati is also home to RTRMS-Medical Center, a nursing school.

The Sta. Ana Racetrack, which actually part of the City of Manila, beside Pasig River in the northern part of the city, is one of the two centers of horseracing in the country. The other is in the San Lazaro Leisure Park in Carmona, Cavite. Along the south-eastern border of Makati beyond Forbes Park is the Manila Golf Club and the Manila Polo Club. The Manila Golf Club features an 18-hole golf course amidst the lush greenery of the city. The Manila Polo Club counts among its polo enthusiasts some of the country's wealthiest people. The Makati Sports Club in Salcedo Village is another popular place for sports people. The Makati Coliseum is another famous sports landmark in the city, where some of the biggest sports gatherings are held.

The Ayala Center also features aside from its shopping malls the Ayala Museum. This museum is most noted for its series of dioramas depicting major events in Philippine history, from the Battle of Mactan, to the EDSA Revolution.

Makati has many Spanish-era churches, such as the Our Lady of Guadalupe and the Nuestra Señora de Gracia (Our Lady of Grace) in the old town. At the Greenbelt Park stands the modern-style domed chapel of the Sto. Niño de la Paz. Between Forbes Park and Dasmariñas Village is the Santuario de San Antonio, a popular church for weddings in the Makati area. The National Shrine of the Sacred Heart is located in San Antonio Village.

At the northern part of the city is the 25-hectare Manila South Cemetery. Every All Saints Day, thousands of people flock to the cemetery to pay their respects to their deceased loved ones.

[edit] Transportation

Buses plying the Epifanio De los Santos Avenue (EDSA) route from Baclaran in Paranaque to Quezon City and Caloocan City pass through the Central Business District daily. Jeepneys ply Makati's inner roads, and connect the city to its surrounding towns and cities. The Metro Rail Transit (MRT-3) on EDSA has four stations located in Makati: Guadalupe, Buendia, Ayala and Magallanes.

[edit] Government

Like other cities in the Philippines, Makati City is governed by a Mayor and Vice Mayor who are elected to three-year terms. The Mayor is the executive head and leads the city's departments in executing the city ordinances and improving public services. The Vice Mayor heads a legislative council consisting of 18 members: 8 Councilors from the First District, 8 Councilors from the Second District, the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) Federation, representing the youth sector, and the President of the Association of Barangay Chairmen (ABC) as barangay sectoral representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of Ordinances and Resolutions.

Makati city is divided into 33 barangays. These barangays are grouped into two congressional districts, with each district represented by a congressman in the House of Representatives. Congressional District I occupies the western and modern half of the city, while District II covers the poorer half.

The junction of Ayala Avenue and Buendia Avenue in the barangays of San Antonio, San Lorenzo, and Bel-Air as seen from the top of the building in Barangay San Antonio.
The junction of Ayala Avenue and Buendia Avenue in the barangays of San Antonio, San Lorenzo, and Bel-Air as seen from the top of the building in Barangay San Antonio.

[edit] Current Officials (2007-2010)

Position Name
Mayor Jejomar Binay
Vice Mayor Ernesto S. Mercado
1st District
Representative Teodoro L. Locsin, Jr.
Councilors Jejomar Erwin S. Binay, Jr.
Monique Q. Lagdameo
Arnold C. Magpantay
Tosca Camille Puno
Armando Padilla
Luis Javier, Jr.
Erlinda S. Gonzalez
Virgilio V. Hilario
2nd District
Representative Atty. Mar-len Abigail S. Binay
Councilors Angelito Gatchalian
Israel S. Cruzado
Ernesto Aspillaga
Vincent Sese
Elias Tolentino
Salvador Pangilinan
Henry Jacome
Ma. Theresa Nilo de Lara


[edit] Barangays

Barangay Population
(year 2004)
Bangkal 22,433 0.74 (1st)
Bel-Air 9,330 1.71 (1st)
Carmona 3,699 0.34 (1st)
Cembo 25,815 0.22 (2nd)
Comembo 14,174 0.27 (2nd)
Dasmariñas 5,757 1.90 (1st)
East Rembo 23,902 0.44 (2nd)
Forbes Park 3,420 2.53 (1st)
Guadalupe Nuevo 22,493 0.57 (2nd)
Guadalupe Viejo 13,632 0.62 (2nd)
Kasilawan 6,224 0.09 (1st)
La Paz 8,843 0.32 (1st)
Magallanes 7,509 1.20 (1st)
Olympia 20,172 0.44 (1st)
Palanan 16,614 0.65 (1st)
Pembo 35,035 1.23 (2nd)
Pinagkaisahan 6,186 0.16 (2nd)
Pio del Pilar 22,495 1.20 (1st)
Pitogo 13,367 0.14 (2nd)
Poblacion 8,446 0.46 (1st)
Post Proper Northside 1,475 0.45 (2nd)
Post Proper Southside 25,037 0.60 (2nd)
Rizal 37,022
San Antonio 12,226 0.89 (1st)
San Isidro 8,686 0.50 (1st)
San Lorenzo 6,487 2.09 (1st)
Santa Cruz 7,419 0.47 (1st)
Singkamas 6,226 0.13 (1st)
South Cembo 13,570 0.20 (2nd)
Tejeros 16,820 0.29 (1st)
Upgrade SHS Katipunan 4,702 0.28 (1st)
Upgrade SHS Novaliches & Commonwealth 4,679 0.30 (1st)
Urdaneta 3,817 0.74 (1st)
Valenzuela 5,908 0.24 (1st)
West Rembo 28,889 0.55 (2nd)

[edit] Mayors of Makati City

  1. Marcelino Magsaysay, (1901-1903)
  2. Eusebio Arpilleda, (1903-1908)
  3. Hermogenes V. Santos, (1908-1911)
  4. Urbano Navarro, (1911-1913)
  5. Jose Magsaysay, (1913-1916)
  6. Pedro Domingo, (1917-1919)
  7. Ricardo Arpilleda, (1919-1920)
  8. Igmidio Flores, (1920-1922)
  9. Nicanor Garcia, (1922-1934)
  10. Jose D. Villena, (1935-1941)
  11. Pablo Cortez, (1945-1947)
  12. Jose D. Villena, (1948-1954)
  13. Ignacio Babasa, (1954)
  14. Bernardo Umali, (1954)
  15. Maximo Estrella, (1956-1964)
  16. Rafael "Paeng" Bañola, (1964-1969)
  17. Jose Luciano, (1969-1971)
  18. Cesar Alzona, (1971)
  19. Nemesio I. Yabut, (1972-1986)
  20. Jejomar C. Binay, (1986-1998)
  21. Elenita S. Binay, (1998-2001)
  22. Jejomar C. Binay, (2001-present)

[edit] Sister cities

[edit] Gallery